Ocular Pathologies Corneal Leukoma Leukoma is a corneal opacity. The cornea takes a white aspect in the whole of its extension or in part. The Leukoma may be congenital or developed after infectious diseases (especially ocular herpes) or traumas. The Leukoma is an opacity that may be centrally located and may also cause modifications in the corneal curvature, reducing the vision. Microphthalmia Congenital or developed anomaly in which the eyeball is abnormally small. The causes of the condition are not always known. It may be related to changes in a chromosome or gene mutation, as SOX2, SIX6 and Pax6. Factors such as exposure to alcohol, drugs, rubella and thalidomide and certain chemicals, such as fungicides, can also cause damage to the embryonic development of the eye. Congenital Cataract A baby is born with an opaque or almost totally opaque crystalline lens. When we open his eyes we realize that the pupils are white. As soon as the problem is detected, the child must be taken to an ophthalmologist. It is very important to investigate the causes. They may arise from infections (measles, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, among others), they can be inherited (these are more frequent that we can imagine) or metabolic errors. Learn more about Solótica’s contact lenses for Pediatric Aphakia vision correction:Hidroblue UV Pediatric Aphakia. Keratoconus The keratoconus is a corneal pathology, hereditary, non-inflammatory and progressive, which is characterized by a central or paracentral protrusion with conical thinning and configuration and that tends to evolve during three phases: • Incipient • Moderate • Advanced For the use of contact lenses, consult the ophtalmologist. Solótica has a whole line of Permeable Gas Rigid Contact Lenses to be adapted in corneas with keratoconus. Photophobia Photophobia is the name given to the excessive sensibility to brightness and sunlight. Such sensibility occurs when the retina photosensitive cells refuse the excess of light and causes discomfort. The photophobia treatment The photophobia treatment may vary, as it depends on the cause that led to it. In cases resulting from diseases it is necessary to treat it as soon as possible, but in cases where no disease exists, there is no treatment. In this case, what is important and possible is to get used to the brightness or use lenses/glasses capable of protecting the eyes against the light. The photophobia rarely occurs in normal eyes, but can happen depending on the pupil´s size, considering that the bigger the pupil the greater will be light reaching the cornea, and the smaller they are, the lesser will be these occurrences. Pterygium The pterygium, commonly referred to as “Surfer’s Eye”, is a fibrovascular proliferation that happens in the cornea. This wound may remain small or grow until it interferes with the vision. In most cases the pterygium is located in the internal corner of the eyes, but may appear in the external edge. What causes it? The exact cause is not completely known, however, the pterygium is more frequent in people exposed to the sunlight or people who spend time outdoors, especially during summer. The high exposure to sunlight, especially to ultraviolet rays and the chronic irritation of the eye seem to play an important role in its aetiology. The disease has great incidence in populations that live near the Equator line, such as the Brazilian Northeast. Colorblindness The Colorblindness is a disease that affects the retina. The retina has two types of cells, cones and rods, which make the vision possible. The cones are responsible for the perception of colors. These cells undergo a genetic modification that prevents them from perceiving the colors in a conventional manner.For a person to have a perfect vision, it is necessary three types of cones in perfect conditions (normal cones). Dry Eyes Dry eye is the term used to describe a group of different diseases and conditions that result from inadequate eye humidity or lubrication. Even though millions of people have dry eyes, it is usually difficult to be diagnosed. It may be easily confused with other conditions, such as infections and ocular allergies. Furthermore, the excess of tears due to crying, cold weather, among other factors, can also cause the dry eye symptoms. What can cause dry eyes? There are several different abnormalities that may cause dry eye, such as reduction of tears production, excessive evaporation, blinking problems, among others. Many factors may influence and be a cause of dry eyes.